Freedom from Government

‘The more freedom, the greater the human security and the less the violence.
Conversely, the more power governments have, the more human insecurity and violence.’
~Rudy Rummel

From ‘Death By Government’ (1994):
– Genocide: among other things, the killing of people by a government because of their indelible group membership (race, ethnicity, religion, language).
– Politicide: the murder of any person or people by a government because of their politics or for political purposes.
– Mass Murder: the indiscriminate killing of any person or people by a government.
– Democide: The murder of any person or people by a government, including genocide, politicide, and mass murder.

New conceptions require new terms.
By “genocide” we mean the destruction of a nation or of an ethnic group.
This new word, coined by the author to denote an old practice in its modern development, is made from the ancient Greek word genos (race, tribe) and the Latin cide (killing), thus corresponding in its formation to such words a tyrannicide, homicide, infanticide, etc.
Generally speaking, genocide does not necessarily mean the immediate destruction of a nation, except when accomplished by mass killings of all members of a nation.
It is intended rather to signify a coordinated plan of different actions aiming at the destruction of essential foundations of the life of national groups, with the aim of annihilating the groups themselves.
The objectives of such a plan would be disintegration of the political and social institutions, of culture, language, national feelings, religion, and the economic existence of national groups, and the destruction of the personal security, liberty, health, dignity, and even the lives of the individuals belonging to such groups.
Genocide is directed against the national group as an entity, and the actions involved are directed against the individuals, not in their individual capacity, but as members of the national group.[1]

169,202,000 Murdered: Summary and Conclusions [20th Century Democide]
I started this research in 1986 and the cutoff year for the collection of data was made 1987.
For consistency in comparing different cases and to avoid constantly having to change total figures as new democides occurred, I have stuck to the 1987 cutoff.
This means that post-1987 democides by Iraq, Iran, Burundi, Serbia and Bosnian Serbs, Bosnia, Croatia, Sudan, Somalia, the Khmer Rouge guerrillas, Armenia, Azerbaijan, and others have not been included.[2. Statistics incl.]

Among all the democide estimates appearing on in this book, some have been revised upward.
I have changed that for Mao’s famine, 1958-1962, from zero to 38,000,000.
And thus I have had to change the overall democide for the PRC (1928-1987) from 38,702,000 to 76,702,000.’ [3]


‘Truth will come to light; murder cannot be hid long.’
~Shakespeare, Merchant of Venice

Death By Government, By R.J. Rummel (1994)

IMAGE: The Poisoned Well
‘This is a record of twentieth century genocidal and other governmental murders, apart from combatants killed in war.
It also includes some episodes of mass torture, rape, forced removals and slave labour.
It is by no means complete.’
Four metres long by 1.32 metres high
One hundred hand-sized pieces
Earthenware, copper saturated glaze,
Printed text on japanese paper

Listen to Pip McManus talk about this work (1 m 31 s, from ABC radio interview with Rhiannon Brown, October 2003)

“One hand, three tears, the twentieth century”

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